Outlook calendar not updating icloud
Microsoft offers these (rather complicated) directions for syncing Outlook for Mac with i Phone. These difficulties are a sample of the reason that I recommend AGAINST Outlook for Mac as a productivity solution.
For other suggestions of productivity tools for Mac users, see this post and this post.
Verify all of these items are up-to-date before starting to ensure you have the latest fixes for known bugs and issues: As of this date, screenshots and instructions are shown using Mac OS X 10.7.2 (Lion), Microsoft Office 2011 (14.1.3) i Tunes 10.5 and i OS 5.0.1.
Instructions should be the same or similar for earlier versions of software.
However, some Exchange users prefer to keep personal information separate from work information.